Introduction to Pest control:
Pest control companies or pesticide spraying companies provide very important services to many people who suffer from insect infestations of various types of homes and roaming tanker of many diseases and epidemics, and destruction of the living system of the family because the insects feed on the remnants of food, and exhausting the housewife in the cleanliness of her home so It is necessary to know the types of insects present in the place and how to get rid of them and prevention.
General methods for pest control:
The Pest control are generally divided into two parts: natural control and applied control
First natural pest control:
natural pest control include factors that destroy or limit the spread of the lesion without human intervention, where natural conditions work to reduce the pests, and can be achieved these factors as follows:
- Food factors such as lack of food due to drought or lack of host.
- atmospheric factors such as high or low temperature and humidity and wind activity and rainfall.
- vital factors such as biological enemies such as parasites or parasites and diseases of fungal insects and bacterial and viral. Topographic factors such as deserts, mountains, lakes and oceans. These factors can reduce the spread of pests.
Second applied pest control:
Man works on the application of this type of control if the failure of natural pest control in the performance of its role, and the most important types of this type of applied pest control:
The processing of agricultural land and its service to reduce insect larvae by exposing them to the heat of the sun, birds and vital enemies also helps plowing to get rid of some types of weeds from the agricultural land, and help the use of agricultural cycle organized and coordinated in reducing Of the spread of some types of harmful insects, and also the fertilization and regulation of irrigation and the use of modern road in these areas and to reduce the damage of some insect pests,
It is the use of effective methods to reduce the formation of insect pests, for example, the introduction of a metal wire in the tunnels where the larvae of the apple leg digger to eliminate them, and these methods depend on the availability of labor, if the availability of labor at low wages, Farmers apply mechanical control to avoid and eliminate agricultural pests. Biological control: Biological control is the use of biological enemies of some insects to weaken and reduce their numbers in agricultural areas, such as fungal and bacterial pathogens that infect harmful insects and destroy them and may weaken them in some cases or make them more affected by chemical pesticides, and in the same Time The human recourse to the use of chemical pesticides is one of the main reasons that led to the weakness of the spread of biological enemies of some insects in agricultural areas and the conversion of forests to agricultural areas has led to the creation of insect areas free of vital enemies.
Control by legislative means:
Many countries enact special laws and regulations for workers in agriculture and farmers so as to educate them somewhat regarding agricultural pests, as well as the application of laws on quarantine in the event of the spread of a pest to help spread and address them.
Pesticides are natural or processed chemicals that have the ability to kill pests in a few concentrations. This method is used by humans if the other natural methods or methods do not succeed in dealing with the insect pest. It is also used if the numerical density of the pest exceeds The success of this control method depends on whether it is used in the right time and place, as well as selecting the appropriate type of insecticide and using it in the recommended and recommended concentration.
Integrated control and pest management systems:
The use of pesticides only in the control of pests often leads to the increase and increase of pest problems, so human resorted to the use of integrated control is the use of chemical pesticides in addition to the biological enemies of the pests and conservation, Of the multiplicity of the pest and its hazards, as well as the use of appropriate pesticides, and (pest management systems) means the use of all the factors that can reduce the pest while reducing dependence on pesticides to the extent possible.
Key steps of pest control:
- Provides biological and environmental information on each pest in the orchard including its life cycle, reproduction rates, environmental and evolutionary relationships, dormancy, death factors and other factors affecting it.
- Correct definition of the pest or problem: Before taking any pest control decision, you must be sure that the pest is properly identified (insect, acaros, disease, bad grass, rodents, etc.) or physiological or environmental problem (nutrient deficiency, imbalance) Water, etc.). The correct definition is necessary in order to make the most appropriate decision (whether it is necessary to start the fight) in addition to its importance in choosing the best options for controlling the pest.
- Interaction between plant, and pest: including the effect of host plant (species) on the development of the pest control and its behavior, some facts about the pest effect on the host, and the effect of alternative hosts on the evolution and dynamics of insect aggregates.
- Spatial propagation: including how the pest spreads in the host tree space, in the orchard, in the surrounding areas and in the surrounding environment.
- Identify the natural enemies of existing pests: assess the role of these natural enemies and the extent to which they can support the integrated management program followed.
- Monitoring, sampling of pests, physiological problems and damage caused: This method is highly effective only if the sample unit is taken in a practical and applicable manner to give a correct assessment of the total pest and is useful in determining the need for control methods. Many sampling methods are available but some are unreliable in some cases if they are not supported by additional information. It is very important to look for the symptoms of damage and pests regularly. It is preferable to use consistent and consistent sampling and survey methods. The traps can be used to control insects, the level of disease, or rodent damage if necessary. The frequency of the sample depends on the state of the pest, but it is generally taken every week or two for many insects and diseases during the growing season. Look at places where the lesion usually occurs, such as in the lower surface of the leaves, inside the fruit, under the shell, on the roots, in the soil, etc.
Integrated pest control management:
Man began to develop pest control methods. In the beginning of the century, poisonous gases such as hydrogen cyanide were used to smoke trees while at the same time mineral and petroleum oils appeared from both the oil and the tarpene. After the Second World War new industrial compounds such as organic chlorine or organic phosphorus compounds appeared and those interested in pest control showed that these pesticides gave the healing answers to the required control process.
Integrated Control Concept:
Integrated Control Concept is a modern applied science that dates back more than 25 years. We can determine that the 1970s were the foundations of the Integrated Control Concept.
Stages of integrated control development:
It was not possible to apply all integrated control data at once, but gradually applied. The reduction of the increased use of pesticides and the rationalization of its use was the issue that received the greatest attention, which formed the first stage before reaching the integrated control:
- Minimize the use of chemicals and limit them to the most urgent cases and rely on the data of agricultural alerts and various biological data.
- Minimize the secondary effects of agricultural pesticides on beneficial species of arthropods such as biological enemies, plant pollinators and other useful insects.
This includes a set of measures that can be summarized by spraying in times of absence of these beneficial organisms and using localized control and the selection of less toxic pesticides, in other words, the use of specialized selective pesticides such as nutrient inhibitors and growth hormones. The use of these materials, along with many biological, agricultural and physical methods.
The second stage: At this stage, the use of chemicals is avoided, as far as possible, especially on physical agricultural methods, etc., in order to reduce pest enemies with minimal damage. Possible to the ecological medium.